italy history summary
He set up a series of new republics, complete with new codes of law and abolition of old feudal privileges. Vittorio Valletta, Fiat's general manager, helped by trade barriers that blocked French and German cars, focused on technological innovations as well as an aggressive export strategy. It was also in the interest of mercenaries on both sides to prolong any conflict, to continue their employment.  A constitution set a series of checks and balances, and a separation of powers. Italian unification was completed, and the capital was moved from Florence to Rome.. The first government of Depretis collapsed after his dismissal of his Interior Minister, and ended with his resignation in 1877. A warrior and mariner people, the ancient Sardinians held flourishing trades with the other Mediterranean peoples. In 1820, Spaniards successfully revolted over disputes about their Constitution, which influenced the development of a similar movement in Italy. Upon taking power, Mussolini formed a coalition with nationalists and liberals. With this colonization, Greek culture was exported to Italy, in its dialects of the Ancient Greek language, its religious rites and its traditions of the independent polis. In 1155, Emperor Manuel Komnenos attempted to regain Southern Italy from the Normans, but the attempt failed and in 1158 the Byzantines left Italy. Milan, Florence and Venice, as well as several other Italian city-states, played a crucial innovative role in financial development, devising the main instruments and practices of banking and the emergence of new forms of social and economic organization.. Also, despite Rommel's advances, the campaign in North Africa began to fail in late 1942. "Napoleonic Italy: Old and New Trends in Historiography." Thenceforth, the Fasci di Combattimento (forerunner of the National Fascist Party, 1921) of Benito Mussolini successfully exploited the claims of Italian nationalists and the quest for order and normalization of the middle class. The Socialist party (PSI), led by Bettino Craxi, became more and more critical of the communists and of the Soviet Union; Craxi himself pushed in favour of US president Ronald Reagan's positioning of Pershing II missiles in Italy. Inspired by the Spaniards (who, in 1812, had created their constitution), a regiment in the army of the Kingdom of Two Sicilies, commanded by Guglielmo Pepe, a Carbonaro (member of the secret republican organization), mutinied, conquering the peninsular part of Two Sicilies. It then spread south, having an especially significant impact on Rome, which was largely rebuilt by the Renaissance popes. Mussolini fled Rome and Italy surrendered to the Allies. After the fall of Rome in AD 476, Italy was fragmented in numerous city-states and regional polities, and, despite seeing famous personalities from its territory and closely related ones (such as Dante Alighieri, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Niccolò Machiavelli, Galileo Galilei or even Napoleon Bonaparte) rise, it remained politically divided to a large extent.  The conquest of the Hellenistic kingdoms provoked a fusion between Roman and Greek cultures and the Roman elite, once rural, became a luxurious and cosmopolitan one. On 28 October, Mussolini launched an attack on Greece without consulting Hilter, who was informed of the invasion Greco-Italian War by reading about it in the morning newspaper and was furious. Napoleon conquered most of Italy in the name of the French Revolution in 1797–99. The second government of Depretis started in 1881. However, the southern regions of the young nation remained rural and poor, originating the Italian diaspora. Officially, the government was republican, but Augustus assumed absolute powers. Nevertheless, Italian nationalists considered World War I a mutilated victory and that sentiment led to the rise of the fascist dictatorship of Benito Mussolini in 1922. The few independent city-states were also subdued.  The pandemic caused also a severe economic disruption, which resulted in Italy being one of the most affected countries. In 1521 the Spaniards took Milan from the French. Under Augustus's rule, Roman literature grew steadily in the Golden Age of Latin Literature. Within its European part (99.97% of the total territory) is the Italian peninsula and the Po valley. The nativity scene, a popular symbol of Christmas throughout the world, also has its roots in early Italian history. For the next seven centuries, until the barbarian invasions destroyed the western Roman Empire in the 4th and 5th centuries A.D., the history of Italy is largely the history of Rome. In America on the other hand, a carpenter who worked a 56-hour week would earn $18. Many Italian generals and officers earned our respect as men as well as soldiers". A BRIEF HISTORY OF VENICE, ITALY. Rome led the federation of the Italic peoples, and later dominated Western Europe, Northern Africa, and the Near East. The poets of the north adopt a less flowery style, using simple Italian to express the emotion of love. The architects of Italian unification were Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, the Chief Minister of Victor Emmanuel, and Giuseppe Garibaldi, a general and national hero. History A malarial swamp seems like a strange place to found an empire, unless you consider the circumstances: from the 5th to 8th century AD, Huns, Goths and sundry barbarians repeatedly sacked Roman towns along Veneto’s Adriatic coast. The Alliance successfully fought and defeated the Franco-Spanish "Party of the Two Crowns", and the subsequent Treaty of Utrecht and Rastatt pass control of much of Italy (Milan, Naples and Sardinia) from Spain to Austria, while Sicily was ceded to the Duchy of Savoy. In addition, it has also been the first in which the number of female ministers is equal to the number of male ministers. The Etruscans built cities on a grid pattern. While I learned a great deal, I was particularly struck by the contrast between Italy's age old, and varied culture and its relatively youthful status as a unified country; first unified in 1861. The first nativity scene, the presepio, was created by artist Giovanni Vellita in the village of Greccio, in the year 1224. The History of Padua. The Papacy regained its authority, and undertook a long struggle against the Holy Roman Empire. By the late 18th century, the peninsula was little more than a tired, backward playground for the big powers. Duggan argues that his regime exploited Mussolini's appeal and forged a cult of personality that served as the model that was emulated by dictators of other fascist regimes of the 1930s.. As Tangentopoli was under a set of judicial investigations by the name of Mani pulite (Italian for "clean hands"), voters demanded political, economic, and ethical reforms. On 9 June 1944 he was replaced as Prime Minister by the 70-year-old anti-fascist leader Ivanoe Bonomi.  However, many of the South's political problems and its reputation of being "passive" or lazy (politically speaking) was due to the new government (that was born out of Italy's want for development) that alienated the South and prevented the people of the South from any say in important matters. Octavian annihilated Egyptian forces in the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE. The city of Syracuse in Sicily was once the largest Ancient Greek city in the world. Caesar reconciled the two more powerful men in Rome: Marcus Licinius Crassus, his sponsor, and Crassus' rival, Pompey. Venice in the Middle Ages. El Alamein was a battle that was lost with great honour, facing up to overwhelmingly superior firepower with poor weapons but with great spirit and capacity to resist and to hold up high the honour of Italy". What is Italy? Industrial wages kept pace but not wages for farm workers. Depretis' goals included widening suffrage in 1882 and increasing the tax intake from Italians by expanding the minimum requirements of who could pay taxes and the creation of a new electoral system called which resulted in large numbers of inexperienced deputies in the Italian parliament. At peace for more than half a century now, Italy’s inhabitants enjoy a high standard of living and a highly developed culture. However, Spain attempted again to retake territories in Italy and to claim the French throne in the War of the Quadruple Alliance (1718–1720), but was again defeated. By this time Rome was a consolidated empire – in the military view – and had no major enemies. The Black Death in 1348 inflicted a terrible blow to Italy, killing perhaps one third of the population. Goods and services from Italy are of excellent global standards and reputation.  However, after a failed constitutional referendum, Italy entered a period of political instability culminating in a general election that resulted in a hung parliament and the subsequent formation of the first populist government in Western Europe.  Winston Churchill said in a speech to the House of Commons a month after El Alamein: We must honour the men that were the Lions of the Folgore. Robert Wilde is a historian who writes about European history. $2.99 #32.  Italian rates of growth were second only, but very close, to the German rates, in Europe, and among the OEEC countries only Japan had been doing better. Mussolini tried to calm his ally by stating that he would be in Athens in two weeks time invasion of Greece. In the South, there were attacks from the Umayyad Caliphate and the Abbasid Caliphate. Many leading revolutionaries wanted a republic, but eventually it was a king and his chief minister who had the power to unite the Italian states as a monarchy. The dukedoms of Parma and Modena re-formed, and the Papal States and the Kingdom of Naples returned to the Bourbons. The most important cultural transplant was the Chalcidean/Cumaean variety of the Greek alphabet, which was adopted by the Etruscans; the Old Italic alphabet subsequently evolved into the Latin alphabet, which became the most widely used alphabet in the world. The rest of this lesson will examine the rise and events of Italy's fascist experiment. The Roman Republic was formed out of the papal holdings while the pope himself was sent to France. Italy’s history and culture are entwined with its ancient heritage, and all Italians are immensely proud of their country and its amazing past. The path to unification and modernization created a divide between Northern and Southern Italy. At that time a Celtic people called the Veneti lived along the coast of what is now Northeast Italy. In 1866, Prussian Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck offered Victor Emmanuel II an alliance with the Kingdom of Prussia in the Austro-Prussian War. The General Elections of 1946, held at the same time as the Constitutional Referendum, elected 556 members of a Constituent Assembly, of which 207 were Christian Democrats, 115 Socialists and 104 Communists. Belgium and Piedmont became integral parts of France.. Famous vernacular poets of the 15th century include the Renaissance epic authors Luigi Pulci (Morgante), Matteo Maria Boiardo (Orlando Innamorato), and Ludovico Ariosto (Orlando Furioso). After WWII, Italy became a republic and prospered. Art in Italy was properly strengthened and refined during Roman times. After the death of Charlemagne (814), the new empire soon disintegrated under his weak successors. The Germans brought Mussolini to northern Italy where he set up a Fascist puppet state, the Italian Social Republic. Italy’s long history is dominated by three periods, the three R’s: The Roman Empire: during these centuries Italy was the centre of one of the largest empires the world has ever seen, and the wealth that poured into the peninsula led to the creation of some of the most magnificent monuments of the Ancient World. The (Folgore) Paratroopers have always shown this. The Spaniards regained Naples and Sicily following the Battle of Bitonto in 1738.  Historians believe the dramatic reduction in Italian cities population (and, thus, in economic activity) contributed to Italy's downfall as a major commercial and political centre. It was also in direct conflict with the dominant Catholic and scholastic doctrines of the time concerning how to consider politics and ethics.. The Italian general election, 1948 saw a landslide victory for Christian Democrats, that dominated the system for the following forty years. Italy entered the war with an army of 875,000 men, but the army was poorly led and lacked heavy artillery and machine guns, their war supplies having been largely depleted in the war of 1911–12 against Turkey. A half-century which the number of female ministers is equal to the Kingdom of Sardinia lost blaming equipment! And his disciple Leonzio Pilato of Seminara complete with new codes of law abolition. This literary age lasted through Roman times for Giovanni Boccaccio in 753 pope! 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